The typology of defence and security corruption risks below, created by Transparency International's Defence and Security Programme (TI DSP), gives details on the many ways corruption may manifest itself in these high-risk sectors. This typology defines five main categories with its corresponding corruption risks. Our programme has also developed typologies for corruption risks in defence companies, the police and peacekeeping. Click on the tabs and boxes below for detailed information on each topic.
- POLITICAL Defence & Security Policy Defence Budgets Nexus of Defence & National Assets Organised Crime Intelligence Services Control Export Controls
FINANCE Asset Disposals Secret Budgets Military-owned Businesses Illegal Private EnterprisesPERSONNEL Leadership Behaviour Payroll, Promotions, Appointments, Rewards Conscription Salary Chain Values and Standards Small Bribes
OPERATIONS Disregard of Corruption In-Country Corruption Within Mission Contracting Private Security CompaniesWe have written blog posts spelling out the political, financial, personnel, operations and procurement corruption risks in the defence sector.
- LEADERSHIP, GOVERNANCE & ORGANISATION Leadership, governance & organisation External engagement Structure & organisation Monitoring & evaluation
TRAINING General training Specialist trainingRISK MANAGEMENT Risk assessment Partners & agents Offsets
PERSONNEL & HELPLINES Personnel & discipline Helplines & whistle-blowers
- POLITICAL Domestic Policing Strategy Allocation & Distribution of Funds Political Interference Influence of Interest Groups Organised Crime Reaching Performance Targets Weak Independent Oversight
FINANCE Asset Disposals Internal Audit Control Private Security Facilitation PaymentsPERSONNEL Leadership Behaviour Payroll, Promotions, Appointments, Rewards Salary Chain Values & Standards Criminal Activities Personal Problems Personal Asset Declarations Rotations
PROCUREMENT Technical Requirements/Specifications Contract Award, Delivery Confidential Tender
- POLITICAL FRAMEWORK Mandate Settlement Mission planning Conduction of operations in a corrupt environment TROOP CONTRIBUTING COUNTRIES Selection of troops & police TCC/PCC reimbursement Mission subsistence allowance Skimming of salaries Contingent owned equipmentMISSION OPERATIONS Bribery Theft Trust Funds Field Procurement Sexual Exploitation & Abuse Exploitation of Local Staff Withdrawal of Mission Asset Disposal
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